My experiences online suggest two people from separate programming subcultures, each with multiple decades of experience, who articulately defend themselves, can disagree on fundamental issues. Both are convinced that their way is unquestionably correct. Their group's ideas are generally viewed as sacred, and yet they often contradict those of others groups.
Why do they disagree? And how do we decide who is right? I don't think there are any clear answers, but it's interesting to think about.
I think experienced programmers disagree because programming is (a) still in its infancy and (b) hard.
A programmer can only work on a handful of large projects in their lifetime, and it can take years before they receive feedback from their choices. This means that even a veteran programmer has little evidence to determine what's best -- and ambiguious evidence at that. Further more, since programmers tend to follow a specific culture, it's likely that the projects they've worked on all followed a similar methodology, and so they have limited experience of other approaches.
I think in most instances, programmers don't know much beyond the culture they were raised in. An embedded systems programmer is unlikely to understand the problems of a web programmer and vice versa. One is working in a jungle, and the other is working in the desert. One gets incredulous that the other doesn't wear suncream.
A better question might be "Who shouldn't we trust?" Teaching is a big industry: books, conferences, bootcamps, university degrees. Anyone can give a talk or write a book. "Those who can, do; those who can't, teach". And the teachers themselves disagree with each other.
If you dig into the CVs of well-regarded programming teachers, they often don't provide strong evidence for why you should trust them.
I have more respect for those that survey across projects, but that's still weak data and anecdotes. I think there are too many variables between different teams and projects to isolate what works. There are no double-blind studies here, and I think if we're going to reach sound conclusions, that's the rigour required.
What qualities should a trusted authority have? Maybe they've programmed much more than others, completed multiple large, complex projects to a high standard? How high is writing lots of books and giving lots of talks on that list?
If we trust people with a long, proven track record, that is no guarantee in itself. Even if correct, they will tell you what worked for them when solving their problems, when working within their environment.
An approach that has served me well when learning a new subject is to start at the beginning. When the foundations are dodgy, the elaborate the structure on top is irrelevant.
Currently, my personal conclusion, rightly or wrongly, is that programming is primarily about solving data transformation problems. I find the more I focus on the data, the clearer things are. Code is easier to read and maintain if the transformation performed naturally arises out of the problem being solved, when self-expression is minimised.
Programming is an engineering discipline, not an art. Any solution should say more about the problem than it does about the person who solved it.
I like people who are ready to admit that they don't know. This subject is so large that nobody can know it all, and so varied that there are few absolutes. Like with anything else, an ego prevents learning, causes overconfidence, and leads to ostentation.
With so many experienced programmers disagreeing, I think the only sensible approach is to be slow to judge, to avoid dogma, to expand your horizons, and to always doubt your own approach.